Sarcopenia -Aging and Muscle Loss

Sarcopenia is loss of muscle mass and function that comes with aging. An average decrease of around 3%-8% muscle mass over a period of every ten years after the age of 30 has been noted in sedentary individuals however physically active individuals also undergo some muscle loss.

Sarcopenia leaves the body fragile and prone to injuries due to loss of balance which results in falls and slips.

Some symptoms of sarcopenia include decreased muscular endurance and strength this prevents people from performing activities of daily living or exercise at the same level and hence further increasing the rate of muscle loss.

But is lack physical activity the only factor responsible for sarcopenia?

Studies show that there may be other factors like:

  1. Body is not able to synthesize protein as efficiently.
  2. Lack of a balanced diet.
  3. Hormone levels.
  4. Decreased number of neurons that send signals from brain to muscle, this loss of neurons can be due to aging.

As discussed before sarcopenia is caused by loss in muscular strength and endurance therefore it is of utmost importance to engage in strength and endurance training exercises. Weight training shows an increase in neuromuscular activation, secretion of testosterone and growth hormone and also an increased rate of protein synthesis. A proper workout regimen as per individuals fitness level should be designed to ensure optimal results while reducing the chances of injury.

A study on how protein intake effects sarcopenia states that for maximizing protein synthesis around 25- 30 g of protein needs to be consumed in a meal although protein synthesis is negatively impacted when protein and carbohydrates are consumed at the same time or the amount of protein consumed in a meal is less than 20 grams in a meal. It is believed that supplementing with leucine (one of the Branch chained amino acids) may also help in increasing protein synthesis.

I hope you found this article helpful. Please be sure to leave any feedback.


  • Paddon-Jones, D., & Rasmussen, B. B. (2009). Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia: Protein, amino acid metabolism and therapy.Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care12(1), 86–90.
  • Sarcopenia (Muscle Loss With Aging): Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments. (n.d.). Retrieved May 03, 2016, from
  • What Is Sarcopenia? – Aging in Motion. (n.d.). Retrieved May 03, 2016, from


First Workout Video

After the last article I posted, I got a few questions in my e-mail regarding what the exercises were, how to do them. In short the article was confusing for beginners.

So I decided to make a video of what the workout should look like beginning from the warmup till the cool down.Hopefully this will make things easier.

Let me know what you think of the video. Good luck on your fitness goals!

Beginner Workout

How many of us know someone who really wants to lose weight but just is not able to? Chances are we at least know one person with this difficulty. What we however need to realize is that it is not always their fault.

Most people who are overweight often go to one of their physically fit friends or trainers for advice. Sometimes the person who we go to for advice does not realize that we are not at the same physical fitness status as them.

I still remember the first time I went to the gym, I had no idea of how to work out. I did not even know what a bicep curl was and one of the fitness gurus over there told me to do pull ups. I was overweight, needless to say I was not able to do even a single repetition or even lift my body up for that matter.

Not every person deals with failure the same way, some people will get highly demoralized under such circumstances. There are certain things the people who prescribe or advice workouts to others need to take into account regarding the people coming for help, like their:-

  • Fitness level
  • Muscular strength
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Flexibility
  • Motor patterns

Recently I was contacted by a friend who is a bit on the overweight side and asked for my help. So I decided to write this article for him and anyone else who wants to start working out and get in shape. This is a very basic level program designed for someone who is overweight and wants to get started with physical activity. Try doing this workout two to three times a week with at least a day between training days.

If you cannot do the reps specified please do not overload yourself in the first week. You will gradually get stronger. If you are having trouble with knee push-ups you can skip them for the time being till you build the appropriate strength levels.

Exercise Reps/Time Instructions
Elliptical / Light Jog 15 minutes Do this as a warmup
Wall sit 30 seconds
Side Shuffle 30 seconds Do 30 seconds right and 30 seconds left. Perform at a slow pace.
Flutter Kicks 30 seconds
Rest 30 seconds
Wall sit + Med ball shoulder Press 10-15 reps While performing a wall sit hold a med ball at chest level and do shoulder
Six Inch Holds 15 seconds Lie supine on the ground with feet six inches off the ground
Modified Knee Pushup AMAP AMAP- As many as possible. Do not worry if you cannot do too many
Rest 45 seconds
Resistance Band Back Row 15 reps
Resistance Band Bicep Curls 12 reps
Side Shuffle 30 seconds Do 30 seconds right and 30 seconds left. Perform at a slow pace

Once you are done with the circuit you can do it one more time starting from wall sits. If you are a beginner do the circuit only twice. Remember if the workout gets too much you can always come back to it next time and try finishing it.

Once you are done with the workout it is time to cool down. Which consists five minutes of walking followed by performing static stretches.

Never stretch to the point of pain. If any pain arises stop. Stretching should only be done till level of mild discomfort.

Stretch Sets Time
Lying Quadriceps Stretch 2 20 sec
Seated Single Leg Hamstring Stretch 2 20 sec
Groin Stretch 2 15 sec
Hugging Shoulder Stretch 2 20 sec
Reach Back Chest Stretch 2 20 sec
Lat Stretch 2 20 sec

I wish you the best of luck in your fitness endeavours. Please share your progress for others to see and get motivated. How did you like this article?

Photo credits:

Featured Image: Image courtesy of Stuart Miles at

Role of Physiotherapy

Health industry is vast and expanding very quickly. Physiotherapy is a very most crucial and important part of the health industry.

Over the last two decades physiotherapy field has made a lot of improvements and introduced advance and effective techniques which have proven to be very beneficial results for rehabilitation, sports injuries, traumatic injuries as well as post-operative orthopedic conditions. Physiotherapy showed incredible results in brain traumatic injury patients.

As we all know brain injuries leave patients totally dependent, bed ridden or sometimes in a comatose condition. There are so many conditions in neuroscience which don’t have any particular medicinal treatment and it usually long-term medication. Nobody can do prediction for the cure of the condition, there is no time limit for conditions such as multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injuries, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and cerebral palsy etc. Here, physiotherapy plays an effective role, with the help of physiotherapy techniques and modalities we can rehabilitate the patient with very effective results and make patient independent as early as possible.

In the comatose condition, the patient starts losing body reflexes and tone in the muscles, tendons and ligaments. During this period, if proper physiotherapy treatment is not given to the patient, this may lead to permanent loss of the muscle tone and reflexes in the body.


Image by mynameisharsha via / CC BY-SA

In my personal life experience my elder brother got the Brain stem Injury in a road accident ten years ago. He was in comatose condition for 7 days. With god’s grace and the blessings of my family his conditions got better.

When he moved to ICCU (Intensive Critical Care Unit), the physiotherapist would check on him twice a day. He just gave my brother gentle passive movements to maintain the tone and prevent the spasticity in the muscles. With time my brother’s condition got better with the help of medicine and physiotherapy. When we came home, a neurologist advised us to hire a physiotherapist for daily sessions. With the help of physiotherapy treatment my brother’s condition is getting better.

This life experience motivated me a lot to choose physiotherapy as my profession. After I was done with my studies I realised that physiotherapy profession is the only hope for the traumatic brain injury. Physiotherapy treatment protocol results comes early but sometimes it comes later on. Role of a physiotherapist is also to create rapport with clients and family members and also counsel the patients attendants from time to time.

Photo credits:

Featured Image: Image courtesy of Ambro at


Sandeep Singh Virdi

B.P.T (India)



Do caffeine beverages add towards your daily water uptake?

Have you ever heard people say things like “coffee is a diuretic” or “caffeinated drinks do not count towards your daily water Intake”?

With the weather getting warmer we will soon be sweating more and thus our water uptake would be more.

When I was preparing for a university level bodybuilding competition back in India, I relied heavily on others for diet and training advice. Around three weeks out of the competition, I was feeling that I was still bloated, so people would advise me to drink coffee and green tea for their diuretic properties. I tried it but it did not help.

Some people also say that because of its diuretic properties coffee should not be consumed when dehydrated. This however is not true. Although they might cause increased urination in some cases, they still will not add to dehydration. Let’s take an example of a cup of coffee.

Caffeine present in an average cup of coffee (236 ml approx.) –=Around 95 mg

Based on scientific studies, losses associated with caffeine intake =For intake of every mg of caffeine 1.17ml of water was lost. (1)

Therefore water loss associated with 95 mg of caffeine is111.15 ml

This means that your body still gets approximately 125 ml of water (236-111.15) per cup of an average strength coffee.


Although coffee might have some mild diuretic effects which lead to increase in urination.  It does not lead to dehydration and can also be consumed while dehydrated to hydrate your body.

Did you share similar beliefs about the diuretic effects of coffee before reading this article?

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